[16] The Galveston Daily News. The elevation was helpful to avoid the flooding and yellow fever epidemics that plagued the city at the time. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Corner lots and lots allocated for churches, schools, or important houses on or near Heights Boulevard were often larger in size. Two homeowners in Heights East, Kathleen Powell and Paul Luccia, have taken their arguments to the state Supreme Court, arguing that Houston’s Historic Preservation Ordinance constitutes as zoning. In 1918 residents voted for annexation to the city of Houston. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth469037/m1/5/?q=cooley%20%22houston%20heights%22: accessed May 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Abilene Library Consortium. (Galveston, Tex. Houston Heights TX History. 51, №87, Ed. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth466333/m1/3/?q=cooley%20%22houston%20heights%22: accessed May 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Abilene Library Consortium. [14] Other Victorian homes featured on the map belonged to G.B. On the bottom left is a massive structure identified as the Car Works, which manufactured railroad cars. Houston Heights made history as one of the first planned communities in Texas, and the first suburb of Houston. From $84 / night. Cloudflare Ray ID: 616252f69b4f09b0 Find out about the activities and fundraisers that support your neighborhood. [21] Residents’ occupational diversity included professions such as bookkeeping, dentistry, painting, yard maintenance, printing, bartending, and everything in between. ), Vol. Cozy, charming, and unique in every way. In addition to Cooley’s vision on the ground, the Omaha & South Texas Land Company had true heavyweights of industry leading the company according to local newspapers issued throughout 1892. J.B. Marmion was the last mayor of Houston Heights before it was annexed by the City of Houston. Modified on March 23, 2017. The author of two historical novels set in Houston Heights, she serves on the board of several historical organizations. Houston Heights East Historic District. The Houston Heights Association obtained a 30-year lease from the City of Houston and immediately began restoration of this beautiful, historic building. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hvhab, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/eqm08, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fcomd, https://www.houstonchronicle.com/local/history/article/In-the-Heights-the-past-is-not-that-far-off-7723357.php, https://www.houstontx.gov/planning/HistoricPres/HistoricPreservationManual/historic_districts/heights_history.html, https://www.houstontx.gov/planning/HistoricPres/landmarks/15PL123_Heights_Water_Works.pdf, texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth469037/m1/5/?q=cooley%20%22houston%20heights%22, http://theleadernews.com/carter-cooley-put-heights-on-the-map/, texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth391335/m1/16/?q=%22DANIEL%20DENTON%20COOLEY%22%20houston%20heights, https://atlas.thc.state.tx.us/Details/5201010640/print, texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth468579/m1/3/?q=cooley%20%22houston%20heights%22, texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth466333/m1/3/?q=cooley%20%22houston%20heights%22, texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth467700/m1/3/?q=cooley%20%22houston%20heights%22, https://www.houstontx.gov/planning/HistoricPres/HistoricPreservationManual/historic_districts/heights.html, texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth467276/m1/4/?q=%22houston%20heights%22%20%22spring%20bed%20and%20mattress%20factory%22, The Trick-or-Treat Murder of Peter Fabiano, How Worms, Germs, and Lowlife Scum Rewrote the Script, The Story of Elizabeth Bathory, The Blood Countess. Its initial site was lots 8-17 of Houston Heights Block 185, on what is now Milroy Park. Towns were becoming cities; cities were expanding. The Electric Light and Power Company is shown on the left. [8] Rahman, Fauzeya, “In the Heights, the past is not that far off,” Houston Chronicle, May 19, 2016. https://www.houstonchronicle.com/local/history/article/In-the-Heights-the-past-is-not-that-far-off-7723357.php. [7] Perhaps nothing was as grand as Heights Boulevard, the main thoroughfare for the community. [13] Carter & Cooley put Heights on the Map, The Leader, July 30, 2017. http://theleadernews.com/carter-cooley-put-heights-on-the-map/. • ), Vol. It wasn’t until the [10] Protected Landmark Designation Report — Houston Heights Water Works. Houston Heights High School was first established for Heights residents in 1904, as an elementary through high school. [9] Houston Heights West, East and South. This charming cottage has been lovingly maintained over its one hundred year history, but is now ready to be reimagined for the 21st century! See homes, parks, walking trails, businesses and more! Carter reported that he closed a deal with capitalists and manufacturers in the eastern U.S. to build a streetcar factory in Houston Heights. Hengen, Esq., and N.L. This was especially true in Texas, where speculators were drawn from other states. Norhill, Houston is an historic neighborhood in northwest-central Houston, TX. Houston Heights grew rapidly in the 20th century, but continued to maintain its unique identity. Carter, President; C.S. Houston Heights was established around the turn of the 20th century when the most popular architectural styles of the 19th century were becoming outdated. Houston Heights made history as one of the first planned communities in Texas, and the first suburb of Houston. The Heights traces its roots back to 1891, when Oscar Martin Carter, through the Omaha and South Texas Land Company, purchased 1,756 acres of land a few miles northwest of downtown Houston. Mills, Superintendent of the Real Estate Department; W.J. Oscar Martin Carter arrived in Houston in 1886, and by 1891 he and a group of investors established the Omaha and South Texas Land Company. Published by the Texas State Historical Association. It remains a distinctive neighborhood with many historic structures. The company purchased 1,756 acres (7.11 km ) of land and established infrastructure, including alleys, parks, schools, streets and utilities, worth $500,000 United States dollars. A small set of images depicts other cities such as Huntsville and San Antonio. [18] The Galveston Daily News. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. With its tree-lined streets and quaint bungalows, walkability in this inner city neighborhood is just one of the many advantages. [19] In glamorous contrast to the factories shown on the map is the three-story Houston Heights Hotel in the lower right corner. Norhill is distinguished by its prevalence of bungalows and the green spaces known as esplanades. Accessed May 15, 2018. http://www.houstonheights.org/about/history/. Lula J. Doughty House, (NR, C… Jones House, (NR), located at 1117 Allston Street was built in 1905. 1991. The company advertised graded and paved streets with “artificial stone curbings and sidewalks,” as well as its own artesian waterworks system and electric light and power plant, and boasted of being sewer-drained throughout. It is adjacent to the more widely known Houston Heights neighborhood as well as Woodland Heights. (Accessed on May 21, 2018). [14] Texas State Historical Association. Two parks in the Heights are named for former mayors - Marmion Park and Milroy Park at Yale and 12th Streets, near the former … Houston Heights West Historic District. Office of the City Secretary | Houston eGov Website . This map shows the extent of planning necessary to create an appealing and functional community. Workers used lumber that was manufactured from the townsite to construct homes and other buildings. The Omaha & South Texas Land Company invested approximately $1,000,000 for improvements and had a weekly payroll of $1,000 for employees as of June 1892. The president of the basket company cited the superior advantages of Houston Heights as a manufacturing center as the reasoning behind bringing his company — along with a capital investment of $500,000 — to the area. (Galveston, Tex. Additional buildings featured on the map include red-brick structures, indicating the industrial and commercial appeal of the neighborhood. The company was led by O.M. [20] Houston Heights West, East and South. Widely considered Houston's first https://atlas.thc.state.tx.us/Details/5201010640/print. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth468579/m1/3/?q=cooley%20%22houston%20heights%22: accessed May 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Abilene Library Consortium. It remains a distinctive neighborhood with many historic structures. [2] The land was heavily timbered with pine, sweetgum, and oak trees. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. Today, more than 100 structures are listed on the National Register. The city of Houston Heights was incorporated in 1896, and W.G. The George Fuermann Texas and Houston Collection is an extensive group of materials amassed by Fuermann between 1950 and 1971. 51, №261, Ed. With seven historic districts, the Heights is a neighborhood that still offers a glimpse into the city's history. It is an excellent example of one of the most common house types in the district: a bungalow with a hipped roof. 2013. https://www.houstontx.gov/planning/HistoricPres/HistoricPreservationManual/historic_districts/heights_history.html. Developers invested heavily to build the community rapidly. Your IP: [1] The suburb takes its name from its location — it was built on land situated sixty-two feet above sea level and 23 feet higher than downtown Houston. In 1918 Houston Heights residents voted for annexation by the city of Houston. Thank you ! ), Vol. [12] The Galveston Daily News. Cooley’s home set a standard of sophistication with huge chandeliers, inlaid wood floors, a marble wash basin in each bedroom, primitive intercom systems, and large oval stained-glass windows, including one with a rare ruby red Tiffany glass with a rose design. Mills, Esq. Subsequently, the Association purchased the facility from the City of Houston in December 2009. Developers invested heavily to build the community rapidly. Houston Heights Association. The Houston Heights was platted in 1891, while the Woodland Heights was platted more than 15 years later. [10] Cross streets were 70 feet wide, with the dimensions noted on an inset in the lower-left corner of the map. Houston Heights. As early as 1886, Oscar Martin Carter, a self-made millionaire who had business interests in Nebraska and Colorado, brought to Houston a utopian vision for the approaching twentieth t… The development promised to be “a new field of enterprise worthy of close cultivation by the Home-seeker and Capitalist,” and a community where residents could live and work in health and safety. Houston Heights TX History. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Archaeological & Historical Commission, City of Houston Planning and Development Department. Find facts, timeline, community and culture from the official Houston visitors bureau. There is something for everyone in the Heights! Northwest of Downtown sits a section of historic neighborhoods that date back to the late 1800s. The setting of a house – how it is located on and sized to fit a lot – should also be compatible with the historic district. HOUSTON, Texas (KTRK) -- The Heights is considered hot property now that a wave of new buyers are interested in living close to the shopping and dining district. • [9] The 150-foot wide boulevard consisted of a 60-foot wide esplanade with native trees and grass in the middle, two 30-foot wide streets on either side, 15-foot wide sidewalks paved with shell, and an electric street railway. On the right, from top to bottom, are the Houston Heights Brick & Tile Works, a basket factory, a furniture factory, and the Houston Heights Sash Door & Blind Factory. The Houston Heights was designated as a Multiple Resource Area (MRA) in 1983 by the National Park Service. Among the collection’s highlights are over 800 photographic prints that document Houston’s history and enterprise. [20], Individual lots started at $250 and were marketed to blue-collar workers and the middle class who worked in downtown Houston. The Texas Historical Commission established a historical marker on Heights Boulevard detailing the neighborhood’s history, and more than 100 Houston Heights structures were listed in the National Register of Historic Places. O.M. During the Spanish-American War recruits trained at a tent encampment, Camp Tom Ball, on the east side of Heights Boulevard. With seven historic districts, the Heights is a neighborhood that still offers a glimpse into the city's history. [3] Bordered to the south by the White Oak Bayou, it is identified as being only 1.5 miles from Houston’s Grand Central Depot on the Missouri-Kansas-Texas (MKT) line. In 1860, 49% of the city's African American population was enslaved; there were eight free blacks and 1,060 slaves. This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places that are located in the Houston Heights neighborhood of Houston.The "Houston Heights" neighborhood borders are, approximately, Interstate 10 on the South, I-610 on the North, Interstate 45 on the East and Durham on the West. 10/05/2015 Office of the City Secretary | Houston eGov Website . [4] A map showcasing Houston Heights was created to display its most prominent features and attract residents and businesses to the new neighborhood. Houston Heights was designated a Historic Multiple Resource Area by the National Parks Service and listed in the National Register of Historic Places. [15] Daniel Denton Cooley Historical Marker. Unfortunately, Cooley’s home was demolished in 1968. The Omaha & South Texas Land Company,[5] a subsidiary of the American Loan and Trust Company and the original owners and developers of Houston Heights, purchased the land where the new community would be located on May 5, 1891. (Galveston, Tex. When Houston Heights was founded, it was a streetcar suburbof Houston which attracted people who did not wish to live in the dense city. [4] Handbook of Texas Online, Donovan L. Hofsommer, “Missouri-Kansas-texas Railroad,” accessed May 15, 2018, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/eqm08. New styles were taking their place. It wasn’t until 1991 that the neighborhood began to rebound from its postwar decline. Burnett House, (NR, CL) located at 219 W 11th Street is a well-preserved example of the ornate, Queen Anne cottages built in the Heights. home for sale:. [6] Daniel Denton Cooley is the grandfather of Dr. Denton Arthur Cooley, the founder of the Texas Heart Institute, and one of the most influential heart surgeons in history. This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National … (Galveston, Tex. Through its Historical Committee, HHA continues to identify important structures and to nominate them for National Register status. History and Culture; Architectural Styles; Definining Features; Setting; Houston Heights West, East and South Setting. [12], Cooley’s home, which is featured on an inset on the center-left portion of the map, along with two others, was one of the first houses built in the new community in 1893 and served as an example of the type of house to be constructed on Heights Boulevard. City of Houston. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth467276/m1/4/?q=%22houston%20heights%22%20%22spring%20bed%20and%20mattress%20factory%22: accessed May 11, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Abilene Library Consortium. Dean Arnold Corll (December 24, 1939 – August 8, 1973) was an American serial killer who abducted, raped, tortured, and murdered at least 28 teenage boys and young men between 1970 and 1973 in Houston, Texas.He was aided by two teenaged accomplices, David Owen Brooks and Elmer Wayne Henley.The crimes, which became known as the Houston Mass Murders, came to light after Henley … (Galveston, Tex. Houston Heights was one of the first planned communities in Texas and Houston’s first suburb. ), Vol. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. A 1955 Houston Chronicle article described Heights Boulevard as “the most gracious street in all of heavenly Houston.”[11]. Discover Houston's history from its founders to present times. [3] Handbook of Texas Online, Diana J. Kleiner, “Houston Heights, TX,” accessed May 11, 2018, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hvhab. Uploaded on June 12, 2010. 1 Saturday, December 10, 1892, newspaper, December 10, 1892; Galveston, Texas. [13] Ornate Victorian-style homes made of cypress, a termite deterrent, lined the boulevard. Texas Historical Commission. Cooley, known as the “Father of Houston Heights,” was instrumental in the formation of the community, and invested handsomely in his vision on behalf of the Omaha & South Texas Land Company. During that period, American architecture had undergone a transition from the larger and more ornate Victorian -style homes of the late 19th century to the smaller, simpler and more modest bungalow style of the early 20th century Arts and Crafts era, and the two neighborhoods reflect this shift. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth469037/m1/5/?q=cooley%20%22houston%20heights%22: accessed May 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Abilene Library Consortium. Help this precious bungalow celebrate its 100th birthday with a new and improved facelift! He was followed in that office by John A. Milroy, David Barker, and Robert F. Isbell. Historic Preservation Manual: City of Houston Planning & Development Department. Accessed May 11, 2018. In the early years, the HHA was fighting a losing battle. After World War II, Houston Heights struggled to maintain its status as a modern community, and many original structures were repurposed or torn down. The neighborhood is one of the first planned communities … From the tall wood ceilings to the balconies on each floor to the courtyard in the backyard, you will fall in love with all of its character. 1 Sunday, June 19, 1892, newspaper, June 19, 1892; Galveston, Texas. [7] Handbook of Texas Online, Gayle Davies, “Cooley, Daniel Denton,” accessed May 11, 2018, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fcomd. The decade of the 1890s was an exciting period of development for Americans. In 1891, it … The area had begun to decline by the 1950s, and in 1973 the newly founded Houston Heights Association campaigned to preserve the suburb. [21] The Galveston Daily News. Streets that ran east and west were numbered 1st — 29th Avenues, while streets that ran north and south were named for American colleges and universities. This home has so much to offer beyond its prime location! W.G. Love served as its first mayor. By 1908, it had grown to 6,000. Houston Heights Video Tour Take a video tour of the Houston Heights. Montgomery, Vice President; Philip Potter, Secretary; Daniel Denton Cooley,[6] Treasurer; N.L. home for sale:. 1 Sunday, February 5, 1893, newspaper, February 5, 1893; Galveston, Texas. This article documents the wide-ranging history of the city of Houston, the largest city in the state of Texas and the fourth-largest in the United States. The Junior Historian, Volume 25, Number 1, September 1964, periodical, September 1964; Austin, Texas. These efforts combined “to make up the grand sum total of the choicest and most desirable real estate ever put on the market in the Southwest,” according to a promotional pamphlet. MSS 169. (Accessed May 21, 2018). In addition to the features resulting from Cooley’s influence, Houston Heights included a steam railroad that connected the community to the twelve railroad depots in the city proper, as well as residences, businesses, and other buildings upon the 1,756 acres of land purchased for the venture. Love served as first mayor. Clarke. The Houston area attracted thousands of these adventurers, and it was in this climate that Houston Heights began. Carter and a number of investors further expended $500,000 into building streets, parks, schools, and utilities. The hotel’s construction was reported to have cost $100,000, and it opened November 1, 1892. Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library. We need your help! Published by the Texas State Historical Association. The typical residential block contains 24 residential lots, each 50-feet wide. [17], Indicative of how quickly projects were accomplished, there were reports of the first two bright yellow streetcars produced in Houston Heights taking to the streets only two months later. Heights’ residents fear demolition of historic buildings after Stude Theater becomes storage facility By Ryan Nickerson, Staff writer Dec. 22, 2020 Facebook Twitter Email LinkedIn Reddit Pinterest The Heights traces its roots back to 1891, when Oscar Martin Carter, through the Omaha and South Texas Land Company, purchased 1,756 acres of land a few miles northwest of downtown Houston. [5] For more information on the Omaha & South Texas Land Company, consult the John A. Milroy Collection and the McKinney Papers. Carter’s reputation was that of an incredibly persuasive and influential businessman. 51, №244, Ed. 27 were here. [22] There was even a small Mexican community that grew up at Factory Village around the Oriental Textile Mills, where workers made cloth from camel hair.[23]. (Galveston, Tex. Atlas Number 5201010640. [11] Rahman, “In the Heights, the past is not that far off.”. When Houston was founded in 1836, an African-American community had already begun to be established. Houston Heights was designated as a MRA because it was at one time an independent municipality of less than 50,000 inhabitants (1896-1918), and the area also contains a large number of buildings that have been individually listed in the National Register of Historic … Published by the Texas State Historical Association. Seeking a broader tax base with which to support their public schools, voters of Houston Heights agreed to annexation by the city of Houston in 1918. The town was incorporated in 1896, and the population reached 830 four years later. Friends of Houston Heights Historic Districts exists to preserve the historic character of the historic districts. Construction began in 1892, taking only six weeks for 200 workers to cut down trees and build and grade 28.5 miles of streets, 36% of the total roads constructed. Houston Heights West, East and South Boundaries. [17] The Galveston Daily News. “He was very stubborn, I’m told, about those two bridges,” said Dr. Denton Cooley, the grandson of Daniel, and famed Houston heart surgeon. It was hoped that the streetcars would be a “great convenience to the sightseers.”[18]. Lots were platted in a variety of sizes so that people of all economic levels could afford to move into the neighborhood. Become a Sponsor Join the HHA Rent a Property Become a Volunteer It flourished as a distinct municipality until 1918 when it was annexed to the City of Houston. Widely considered Houston's first 2021 Heights Association Board of Directors & Committee Chairs Executive Director – Emily Guyre Board & Officers President – Sharon Dearman President-Elect – Jason Starr VP of Communications – Aaron Flores VP of Community Affairs – Dave Seeburger VP of Finance and Operations – Keith Crane VP of Fundraising and Special Events – Carol Welter… It had a unique architectural style; a crescent-shaped building with every room front-facing, and fine Mexican onyx throughout. Reproductions of this map can be purchased from the GLO’s website. The “Victorian Era” lasted from 1837 to 1901. Modified on December 12, 2016. Young., published 1913, hosted by the Portal to Texas History The city of Houston Heights incorporated in 1896, though the Omaha and South Texas Land Company was forced to liquidate its assets that year, due to the effects of the panic of 1893. “He wanted to make the Heights Boulevard elegant.”[8], Cooley modeled the street after Boston’s Commonwealth Boulevard and planned to feature this tree-lined road prominently with attention to aesthetics, both on the map and on the ground. 51, №177, Ed. Connery; and F.E. [1] Cover of pamphlet associated with Map of Houston Heights, Harris County, Texas owned by the Omaha & South Texas Land Co., Houston, Texas, Boston: Forbes Co., 1891, Map #94458, Map Collection, Archives and Records Program, Texas General Land Office, Austin, TX. Restoration was complete in April 1997 and includes a catering kitchen and chair lift. After 1900, businesses in Houston Heights included a pickle factory, a sawmill, a brick and … ), Vol. ), Vol. Walkable Historic Heights New Garage Apartment Situated in an excellent central location, in the heart of the historic Houston Heights, the newly built Cottages on Columbia is the perfect place for business or vacation travelers. [2] “History.” Houston Heights Association. 51, №87, Ed. It had its own municipality, established on July 1, 1896… Considering the elegance of the houses along Heights Boulevard, especially the opulence of Cooley’s home, housing was relatively inexpensive. [16], Published in the September 17 issue of the Galveston Daily News, a telegraph received from Omaha & South Texas Land Company President O.M. https://www.houstontx.gov/planning/HistoricPres/landmarks/15PL123_Heights_Water_Works.pdf (Accessed on May 11, 2018). The City of Houston Heights was incorporated in 1896. 51, №318, Ed. Buildings in Houston Heights reflect that transition. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. History. A huge bell was rung at lunchtime to feed workers “both black and white,” including tree cutters, road workers, teamsters, brickmakers, and laborers. Referred to as Houston Heights’ historic districts, these areas have residential construction limits to preserve its history and its common look and feel. It remains in the family of the original owner, George Burnett, who built it around 1904. The suburb is also a member of the Texas Urban Main Street program, which sought to revitalize the area. On June 19, the Galveston Daily News reported the company was actively entertaining outside investors “so that they might see how a modern town is built.” Location visits were elaborately planned for their guests: wives were included on the site tour, meals were served on fine white hotel china, and ice cream was provided for dessert. Please support us in our constant fight against demolitions and inappropriate new construction. 1 Sunday, June 19, 1892, newspaper, June 19, 1892; Galveston, Texas. Today, Houston Heights has regained its popularity as an ideal spot for the citizens of Houston to work and play. Three months later, on December 10, the same newspaper reported that the Omaha and South Texas Land Company signed a contract to bring the Omaha Basket Company to Houston Heights. “Mr. Houston's shipbuilding, oil production, and steel manufacturing were critical contributors on the home front during World War II. Residents once flocked to the area to escape the big city, but today it’s home to diverse Houstonians that are drawn to its rich and character-filled architecture, mom and pop-type shops and funky restaurants. Carter and a number of investors further expended $500,000 into building streets, parks, schools, and utilities. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth467700/m1/3/?q=cooley%20%22houston%20heights%22: accessed May 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Abilene Library Consortium. 1 Wednesday, November 23, 1892, newspaper, November 23, 1892; Galveston, Texas. Accessed on May 11, 2018. 1 Saturday, September 17, 1892, newspaper, September 17, 1892; Galveston, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth391335/m1/16/?q=%22DANIEL%20DENTON%20COOLEY%22%20houston%20heights: accessed May 11, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.
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